A thicker oxidized quench oil may affect surface hardness, microstructure, case depth, and core hardness. A steel’s thermal conductivity does not typically change according to alloy composition or temperature. EAF Mill Planned for Southwest U.S., Mexican Auto, Energy Markets, Gas Fan Quench-Cooled Vacuum Hot Press Installed for Aerospace Service Supplier, IHEA Monthly Economic Report: Robust Growth and Significant Gains, Dr. Valery Rudnev on Equipment Selection for Scan Hardening, Part 3, Part Material – chemistry & hardenability. Total Acid Value (TAV) and Grossman H value. A quality quench oil should not need the use of additives to improve oxidation resistance or quench speed. If you have a heat treat tip that you’d like to share, please send to the editor, and we’ll put it in the queue for our next Heat Treat Tips issue. Knowing what quenching oil to choose for your heat treating application is just as important. Therefore, an increase in viscosity typically means the oil is oxidizing. Be hyper-vigilant that no one attempts to recycle fluids that collect on the charge car. The amount of oxygen in a quench oil cannot be measured without a sophisticated laboratory analysis. As the TAV increases so will the levels of oxidation, and in turn, the amount of sludge will also increase. CQI-9 is designed as a tool to help heat treaters produce consistent parts. In severe cases of oxidation staining may result. Keep water out of your oil quench. He obtained a BSc in Chemistry from the University of Illinois at Chicago and is currently pursuing a Master’s Degree in Materials Engineering at Auburn University. As an oil is subjected to the high temperatures of a quenching operation, oxidation is a natural occurrence in the oil. That is a question that is difficult to answer. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. In using the Grossman H value, the lower the value, the slower and less severe the quench. Learn more. As the oil oxidizes it will begin to increase in viscosity until it reaches the point of forming an insoluble sludge. Scott Mackenzie, PhD, FASM, from Houghton International shares what you need to know when selecting quenching oils for your heat treating operations. Furthermore, the cooling speed is dependent upon the viscosity of the oil, the amount of sludge, moisture level, and oxidation of the oil. There are many different methods of running a cooling curve. For instance, an increase in the water content can be detected before the increased water levels begin the oxidation process thereby increasing the TAV. Big circle: Image of globe (Rotating(?) Rikki Homma, K. Ichitani, M. Matsumoto, and G. Steiger, “Evaluation and Control Technique of Cooling Unevenness by Quenching Oil,” 2017 ASM Heat Treat Expo. Conversely, if the test parameters are not working in concert with each other, there may be other issues going on within the quench oil. Does it need to be refreshed? Submitted by Dan Herring,  “The Heat Treat Doctor®”, of The Herring Group. Submitted by Combustion Innovations. Scribd will begin operating the SlideShare business on December 1, 2020 Many Asian suppliers of quench oil will use the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) K 2242. Recommendations for treating out of normal operating parameters for the required CQI-9 tests. The quenchant can be a liquid, solid, or gas. A few pounds of water at the bottom of an I quench trank can cause a major fire. As the oil oxidizes it will begin to increase in viscosity until it reaches the point of forming an insoluble sludge. One of the great benefits of having a community of heat treaters is to challenge those habits and look at new ways of doing things. All of these are tested on a regular basis under the requirements of CQI-9, ISO TS 16949, and most quality systems adopted by modern heat treaters. Greg Steiger is the senior key account manager of Idemitsu Lubricants America for quench products. This special edition is available in a digital format here. Scott Mackenzie, PhD, FASM, from Houghton International shares what you need to know when selecting quenching oils for your heat treating operations. Heat Treat Tip #38 Oil and Water Don’t Mix. Although the quench oil supplier may provide a quench oil analysis, for the analysis to be CQI-9 compliant the analysis must contain the following tests or their equivalent: The frequency of the above testing must be a minimum of semiannually. Or a viscosity change without a change in other parameters could be an addition of the wrong quench oil to the quench tank. In this process, heavier molecules are broken into smaller molecules through the use of heat. It is well understood that these organic acids are the precursors in a chain of chemical reactions that will eventually form sludge. However how much water is too much? The best oil for quenching knife steel might just come down to your situation. The chart below helps understand what some of the methods need to be. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. In a two-stage filter, the cheaper 50 micron filter will be replaced more often than the 25 micron filter in the second stage. These changes can have an impact on the microstructure, case depth, core hardness, and surface hardness on the quenched parts. European suppliers will use the ISO 9950 and North American suppliers rely on the ASTM D 6200 method. Because of this difference, it is important to note that cooling curves and cooling rates between the methods should not be compared. Having test parameters that work in conjunction with each other is only beneficial if sample frequencies are often enough. However, the formation of organic acids within a quench oil can be easily determined via a titration method. Middle size circle: ????????? The calculation used to determine the Grossman H factor has historically been: Where h is the heat transfer coefficient of the part when measured at the surface of the part and k is the thermal conductivity of the steel. The costs can quickly expand to include those associated with poor quality. Quench tank design factors, including number of agitators or pumps, location of agitators, size of agitators, propellor size (diameter, clearance in draft tube), internal tank baffling (draft tubes, directional flow vanes, etc. Be hyper-vigilant that no one attempts to recycle fluids that collect on the charge car. For instance, it is well known that a heavily oxidized oil may create surface stains that must be shot blasted to remove. Design by Brandon Glenn Graphic Design. Quenching is a vital part of the heat treating process in manufacturing. As of this date, Scribd will manage your SlideShare account and any content you may have on SlideShare, and Scribd's General Terms of Use and Privacy Policy will apply. Consequently, as the TAV increases, the amount of staining due to oxidation may increase. When both the H value and viscosity decrease, additive consumption is the most likely reason. In the graph above, it can be seen when the water H value increases and the viscosity remains stable, the likely explanation is an increase in water. Quenchants should be at room temperature or slightly above. Unfortunately, in many cases these reports are not well understood or, worse yet, filed to be used merely as ISO documents. All of these standards measure the same basic property, the ability of an oil to reach martensite formation. Changes in viscosity can lead to both faster quench rates and slower quench rates. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. At levels above 200PPM of water, uneven cooling begins to occur.2  It is important to remember a quench oil is not a pure homogenous fluid. In fact, the more often a quench oil is analyzed, the easier it is to use the quench oil analysis as a tool in the proper care of a quench oil. A more frequent sampling interval does not violate CQI-9. Stuart Company, and Safety-Kleen, Inc. G. Steiger, “Preventing the Degradation of Quench Oils in the Heat Treatment Process,” Metal Treating Institute. If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide, Heat Treating: Selecting the Right Quenching Oil, SHAKTIMAN (Tirth Agro Technology Pvt. The member companies of the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) encompassing automotive manufacturers and their Tier I suppliers have enacted an industry heat treating standard called CQI-91. Many of these issues can be addressed through proper adherence to the quench oil testing protocols established by CQI-9. A conventional oil should last 10 to 15 years or longer while a marquench oil should last seven to 10 years. All Rights reserved. Heat Treat Today‘s 101 Heat Treat Tips, tips and tricks that come from some of the industry’s foremost experts, were initially published in the FNA 2018 Special Print Edition, as a way to make the benefits of that community available to as many people as possible. This standard was originally a standalone standard designed and adhered to primarily by North American OEMs and Tier I suppliers as a quality tool to create consistent documented processes within the heat treating industry with the goal of producing consistent reproducible results. This special edition is available in a digital format here. Such stains typically require post quench and temper processing such as shot blasting. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Utilizing a compliant CQI-9 analysis and the supplier provided operating parameters for the CQI-9 required tests is the first step in the proper care of a quench oil. In addition to serving as a watchdog against the results of excessive thermal cracking, a flash point is also a safeguard against human error and adding the wrong quench oil to a quench tank. The cooling rate of a particular oil can be varied by adjusting its initial pre-quench temperature too. For this reason, many quench oil suppliers request a minimum of quarterly sampling. The full range of management responsibilities, material handling, and equipment operations of the CQI-9 standard is beyond the scope of this paper. In this Heat Treat Today Technical Tuesday feature, Greg Steiger, senior key account manager at Idemitsu Lubricants America, shares how costly quench oil issues can be addressed through proper adherence to the CQI-9 quench oil testing protocols. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Part loading – fixturing, girds, baskets, part spacing, etc. Just as an oil that becomes thinner and less viscous may have a change in cooling properties, an oil that becomes thicker and more viscous may see a change in cooling performance. As the sludge increases, the level of oxidation increases, and therefore, the level of organic acids formed in the quench oil should be increasing the TAV. The next basic steps are ensuring there is enough fresh quench oil available for regular additions to replace the oil that is lost through drag out and proper filtration of the quench oil in a constant kidney loop type of a system. Is it up to spec? Quenching is a vital part of the heat treating process in manufacturing. For example, costs associated with part rejects, or rework and downstream costs for shot blasting, or third-party inspection are often the cause of poor quench oil maintenance. Everyone knows water in a quench oil can be have catastrophic safety and performance consequences. Poorly maintained quench oil can cost heat treaters in many areas.

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