Other Black Hills mountains that are over 7,000 ft (2,133 m) in elevation include Bear Mountain, Crooks Tower, Terry Peak, and Crows Nest Peak. Rapid City, with a 2007 estimated population of 63,997, and a metropolitan area population of 120,279, is the second-largest city in the state.
This area features rocks such as limestone which were deposited here when the area formed the shoreline of an ancient inland sea. RAPID CITY, S.D — When the South Dakota legislature convenes in January, the Senate will have a decidedly “western” feel, and that’s because the top GOP leadership is from west river.  (The ELCA and UMC are specific denominations within the broader terms 'Lutheran' and 'Methodist', respectively.) Fertile topsoil was blown away in massive dust storms, and several harvests were completely ruined.  Custer State Park holds an annual Buffalo Roundup, in which volunteers on horseback gather the park's herd of around 1,500 bison.  The Rapid City Journal, with a Sunday circulation of 32,638 and a weekday circulation of 27,827, is South Dakota's second largest newspaper. , Steppe grasslands predominate in the western two-thirds of South Dakota. The constitution may be amended by a majority vote of both houses of the legislature, or by voter initiative. South Dakota State University (SDSU), in Brookings, is the state's largest university, with an enrollment of 12,831. In 1995 the legislature passed a law to make English the "common language" of the state.  Other state carriers include Dakota Southern Railway, Dakota and Iowa Railroad, Ellis and Eastern Railroad, Sunflour Railroad, Canadian Pacific Railway, and the Sisseton Milbank Railroad. Campbell County and Miner County each saw decreases in population that exceeded 5%, while counties such as Day, Grant, Tripp, and Fall River posted smaller losses in population. The various tribes hold many annual pow wows at their reservations throughout the state, to which non-Native Americans are sometimes invited. South Dakota has also produced several notable artists. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Many birds have their habitat here: geese, ducks, falcons, hawks, turkey buzzards, owls, sparrows, larks, blackbirds, and more.  In 1944, the Pick–Sloan Plan was passed as part of the Flood Control Act of 1944 by the U.S. Congress, resulting in the construction of six large dams on the Missouri River, four of which are at least partially in South Dakota. In addition, Senator Helene Duhamel will serve as one of four Majority Whips. Of the ten largest cities in the state, Rapid City is the only one located west of the Missouri River. After 1868 Dakota Territory corresponded to the present two States, plus an area transferred to Nebraska in 1882.  Settlement by Americans and Europeans was by this time increasing rapidly, and in 1858 the Yankton Sioux signed the 1858 Treaty, ceding most of present-day eastern South Dakota to the United States. For other uses, see, Map of the United States with South Dakota highlighted, Mark Stein, "How the States Got Their Shapes," Smithsonian Books/Harper Collins, 2008 p. 256, Hetland, Cara. The state's eastern part is often considered part of Tornado Alley, and South Dakota experiences an average of 30 tornadoes each year.  Agriculture-related industries such as meat packing and ethanol production also have a considerable economic impact on the state. Eastern South Dakota is generally wetter and features lower topography than the western part of the state. While East River is predominantly a corn- and wheat-growing region, with large numbers of pigs and poultry operations, West River is predominantly ranching with some dryland farming. West River (South Dakota) Last updated April 29, 2019 The Missouri River divides South Dakota into the regions of West River (yellow) and East River (blue).. West River is the portion of the state of South Dakota located west of the Missouri River with well over one-half of the land area and between one-quarter and one-third of the population of the state. Smaller sub-regions in the state include the Coteau des Prairies, Coteau du Missouri, James River Valley, the Dissected Till Plains.  The reservations' isolation also inhibits their ability to generate revenue from gaming casinos, an avenue that has proved profitable for many tribes closer to urban centers. We’re definitely going to have a balanced budget.”. and a metropolitan area population of 238,122. The results of a 2001 survey, in which South Dakotans were asked to identify their religion, include:, The current-dollar gross state product of South Dakota was $39.8 billion as of 2010, the fifth-smallest total state output in the U.S. The per capita personal income was $38,865 in 2010, ranked 25th in the U.S., and 12.5% of the population was below the poverty line in 2008.  Formations from the Paleozoic Era form the outer ring of the Black Hills; these were created between roughly 540 and 250 million years ago. The highest loss occurred in Jones County, with an 8.06% loss.  As of 2010, 93.46% (692,504) of South Dakota residents age 5 and older spoke English as their primary language.
 Two major interstates pass through South Dakota: Interstate 90, which runs east and west; and Interstate 29, running north and south in the eastern portion of the state. 8 Undeniable Differences Between The Eastern And Western Parts Of South Dakota. The state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. , South Dakota is represented at the federal level by Senator John Thune, Senator Mike Rounds, and Representative Dusty Johnson. Among the most important issues is the budget.  Other events in the state include the Tour de Kota, a 478-mile (769 km), six-day cycling event that covers much of eastern and central South Dakota, and the annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, which draws hundreds of thousands of participants from around the United States. Senator Gary Cammack of Union Center will be the Majority Leader and Michael Diedrich of Rapid City will serve as Assistant Majority Leader. Flood plains along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers are habitat for wild rye, bluejoint, and panicgrass. Of the people residing in South Dakota, 65.7% were born in South Dakota, 31.4% were born in another U.S. state, 0.6% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 2.3% were born in another country. There is also volcanic material deposited here that presumably came from the Yellowstone area.
In 1860, some forts and settlements in the present State also were enumerated in Nebraska Territory.  A 1995 study by the U.S. Census Bureau found 58% of homes on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation did not have a telephone. The financial service industry began to grow in the state as well, with Citibank moving its credit card operations from New York to Sioux Falls in 1981, a move that has been followed by several other financial companies.  Other major natural lakes include Lake Kampeska, Waubay Lake, Lake Madison, Lake Whitewood, and Lake Herman. Ellis, of Rapid City, played for the University of Florida and four MLB teams before retiring in 2015.  During that time, nine counties had a population loss of greater than 10%, with Harding County, in the northwest corner of the state, losing nearly 19% of its population. While several Democrats have represented South Dakota for multiple terms in both chambers of Congress, the state government is largely controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. , The Black Hills are in the southwestern part of South Dakota and extend into Wyoming.
Winters are cold with January high temperatures averaging below freezing and low temperatures averaging below 10 °F (−12.2 °C) in most of the state, although especially in the west winter temperatures are extremely variable and chinook winds will raise temperatures above 50 °F or 10 °C several times during most winters. Sa capitale est Pierre et sa plus grande ville Sioux Falls, avec environ 154 000 habitants. Also located in the state are the shorter interstates 190 and 229. Nearly 9% of South Dakota's population is Native American and Indian Reservations are located in both sides of the state.  In 2006, tourism provided an estimated 33,000 jobs in the state and contributed over two billion dollars to the economy of South Dakota.  Badlands National Park was established in 1978, and features an eroded, brightly colored landscape surrounded by semi-arid grasslands. While European-American settlement of East River was largely by homesteaders moving west from Iowa and Minnesota, or immigrants arriving by train from eastern US seaports, West River was settled first by gold-seekers and miners; many from older gold rush locations to the west, such as Montana and Colorado, followed by ranchers from Texas, Kansas, and Colorado.
 In 1980 the Supreme Court and Congress ordered compensation but the Lakota still refuse to accept it, insisting on return of their land. Although most rural counties and small towns have lost population, the Sioux Falls area and the Black Hills have gained population. , South Dakota has a continental climate, semi-arid in the west outside of the Black Hills, with four distinct seasons, ranging from very cold winters to hot summers. L'État américain du Dakota du Sud est divisé en 311 municipalités, qui ont le statut de city, de town ou de village  (seulement Wentworth).  Despite a growing state population and recent economic development, many rural areas have been struggling over the past 50 years with locally declining populations and the emigration of educated young adults to larger South Dakota cities, such as Rapid City or Sioux Falls, or to other states. Young people have moved to cities for other employment.
His accounts of the 19th-century Indian Wars and Ghost Dance movement, and his deep thoughts on personal visions and Native American religion, form the basis of the book Black Elk Speaks, first published in 1932. Among KELO's early programs was Captain 11, an afternoon children's program.  In 1762 the entire region became part of the Spanish Louisiana until 1802.
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